This chapter discusses the aerodynamics of flight—how design, weight, load factors, and gravity affect an aircraft during flight maneuvers. The four forces acting on an aircraft in straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight are thrust, drag, lift, and weight.
What factors affect the flight of a airplane?
The four basic forces [Figure 2-3] acting upon an aircraft in flight are lift, weight, thrust, and drag. Lift is a component of the total aerodynamic force on an airfoil and acts perpendicular to the relative wind. Relative wind is the direction of the airflow with respect to an airfoil.
What are the 5 forces that affect flight?
An airplane in flight is acted on by four forces: lift, the upward acting force; gravity, the downward acting force; thrust, the forward acting force; and drag, the backward acting force (also called wind resistance). Lift opposes gravity and thrust opposes drag .
What three factors affect aircraft performance?
Pressure, temperature, and humidity have a great influence on aircraft performance because of their effect upon density.
What are the seven factors that affect lift?
The lift of a wing may be increased by the angle of attack, airfoil shape, outline shape, airspeed, wing size, and air density. The angle of attack is the angle formed by the airfoil chord and relative wind.
How do the 4 forces of flight affect an airplane?
The way the four forces act on the airplane make the plane do different things. … When the forces are balanced, a plane flies in a level direction. The plane goes up if the forces of lift and thrust are more than gravity and drag. If gravity and drag are bigger than lift and thrust, the plane goes down.
How do wings affect flight?
The shape of an airplane’s wings is what makes it possible for the airplane to fly. Airplanes’ wings are curved on top and flatter on the bottom. That shape makes air flow over the top faster than under the bottom. … This lower pressure makes the wing, and the airplane it’s attached to, move up.
What might affect the lift of a paper airplane?
While the plane is flying forward, air moving over and under the wings is providing an upward lift force on the plane. … The weight of the paper plane also affects its flight, as gravity pulls it down toward Earth. All of these forces (thrust, lift, drag and gravity) affect how well a given paper plane’s voyage goes.
How does thrust affect an airplane?
Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket. … Thrust is a mechanical force, so the propulsion system must be in physical contact with a working fluid to produce thrust.
How does an airplane fly NASA?
A plane flies through the air by continually pushing and pulling the surrounding air downward. In response to the force of moving the air down, the air pushes the airplane upward. … The faster an airplane travels the more lift is generated. Inclining the wing to the wind also produces more deflection and more lift.
What are factors that affect takeoff performance?
Takeoff Distance Variables:
- Gross Weight: As gross weight increases, the difference between nose-wheel lift-off and takeoff speed decreases. …
- Center of Gravity: …
- Nose Strut: …
- Power Settings: …
- Flight Profile Flown: …
- Outside Air Temperature: …
- Field Elevation/Density Altitude: …
- Surface Winds:
How does air pressure affect planes?
A: Air pressure is the reason airplanes are able to produce lift. Due to the shape of an airplane wing, air on top of the wings moves faster than air on the bottom of the wings. … This means that the air on bottom will have higher air pressure and will push the airplane up!
How does temperature affect flight performance?
High air temperatures affect the physics of how aircraft fly, meaning aircraft takeoff performance can be impaired on hot days. The amount of lift that an airplane wing generates is affected by the density of the air. … The lower the air density, the faster an airplane must travel to produce enough lift to take off.
What causes lift in a plane?
Airplane wings are shaped to make air move faster over the top of the wing. When air moves faster, the pressure of the air decreases. So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom of the wing. The difference in pressure creates a force on the wing that lifts the wing up into the air.
How does altitude affect lift?
Lift changes with altitude, but there is more to it than just the height above sea level. The physical quantity which actually affects the lift as we change altitude is the air density. Air density itself decreases with altitude; and it is this decrease which causes the lift to drop.
What affects how much lift a wing produces?
The airfoil shape and wing size will both affect the amount of lift. The ratio of the wing span to the wing area also affects the amount of lift generated by a wing. Motion: To generate lift, we have to move the object through the air.